Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Veterinary Sciences

.: ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Diöstrustaki Kısraklarda Luteal Vaskülaritenin Renkli Doppler ve Güç Doppler Ultrasonografi ileKarşılaştırmalı Olarak Değerlendirilmesi: Metodolojik Çalışma
Comparative Evaluation of Luteal Vascularity in Mares in Diestrus with Color Doppler and Power Doppler Ultrasonography: Methodological Study
İbrahim KURBANa , Zeynep GÜNAY UÇMAKb
aİstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa Veterinerlik Meslek Yüksekokulu, Bitkisel ve Hayvansal Üretim Bölümü, İstanbul, Türkiye
bİstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa Veteriner Fakültesi, Doğum ve Jinekoloji ABD, İstanbul, Türkiye
Turkiye Klinikleri J Vet Sci. 2023;14(2):54-9
doi: 10.5336/vetsci.2023-98881
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
Amaç: Kısraklarda üreme organlarının fizyolojik durumunu değerlendirmenin yanı sıra biyolojik ve patolojik reprodüktif olaylarını teşhisi amacıyla B-mod ultrasonografiden faydalanılmaktadır. Reprodüktif organların fonksiyonlarını ve hemodinamik yapılarını değerlendirmek için ise noninvaziv bir yöntem olan transrektal renkli Doppler (RD) ultrasonografi kullanılmaktadır. Sunulan çalışmada, diöstrustaki fertil kısraklarda, ovulasyon sonrası 5. gündeki luteal perfüzyonun değerlendirilmesinde RD ve güç Doppler (GD) ultrasonografi tekniklerinin etkinliğinin karşılaştırılması amaçlanmaktadır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışmaya 4-8 yaşları arasında, 350-435 kg ağırlığında, kuzey yarım kürede (41° enlem) yaşayan, 16 adet fertil Arap kısrak dâhil edildi. Üreme sezonunda kısraklar çiftleştirilmedi ve ovulasyon sonrası 5. günde, korpus luteumları (KL) değerlendirildi. Çalışma grupları RD ultrasonografi grubu (Grup RD; n=16) ve GD ultrasonografi grubu (Grup GD; n=16) olarak şekillendirildi. Her iki Doppler tekniği ile KL'deki vaskülarizasyon görüntülendi. Damarlaşma miktarı ImageJ programı ile analiz edildi. Bulgular: Ortalama KL çapı 34,1±1,69 mm, KL alanı ise 49,7 mm2 olarak ölçüldü. Verilerin istatistiksel analizi neticesinde, RD ultrasonografi ile KL'deki ortalama renkli piksel miktarı GD tekniğindekine göre anlamlı olarak yüksek bulundu (p<0,001). Bununla birlikte KL'deki minimum renkli piksellerin miktarı ise GD ultrasonografi tekniğinde daha yüksek saptandı (p<0,001). Sonuç: Sonuç olarak kısraklarda luteal perfüzyonun belirlenmesi amacıyla RD ultrasonografinin etkili bir şekilde kullanılabilecek bir teknik olduğu ve minimal düzeydeki pikselleri tespit edebilmek için GD ultrasonografiden faydalanılabilineceği kanısına varıldı.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Kısrak; korpus luteum; renkli Doppler; güç Doppler
ABSTRACT
Objective: In addition to evaluating the physiological state of reproductive organs in mares, B-mode ultrasonography is used to diagnose biological and pathological reproductive events. Transrectal color Doppler (CD) ultrasonography, which is a noninvasive method, is used to evaluate the functions and hemodynamic structures of reproductive organs. In the present study, it is aimed to compare the effectiveness of CD and power Doppler (PD) ultrasonography techniques in the evaluation of luteal perfusion on the 5th day after ovulation in diestrus fertile mares. Material and Methods: Sixteen fertile Arabian mares aged 4-8 years, weighing 350-435 kg, living in the northern hemisphere (41° latitude) were included in the study. During the breeding season, the mares were not mated and the corpus luteum (CL) was evaluated on the 5th day after ovulation. Study groups were formed as CD ultrasonography group (Group CD; n=16) and PD ultrasonography group (Group PD; n=16). Vascularization in the CL was visualized with both Doppler techniques. The amount of vascularization was analyzed with the ImageJ program. Results: The mean CL diameter was 34.1±1.69 mm, and the CL area was 49.7 mm2 . Vascularization in CL was visualized with both Doppler techniques. As a result of the statistical analysis of the data, the mean amount of colored pixels in CL with CD ultrasonography was found to be significantly higher than in the PD technique (p<0.001). However, the amount of minimum colored pixels in CL was higher in PD ultrasonography technique (p<0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, it was concluded that CD ultrasonography is an effective technique to determine luteal perfusion in mares and that PD ultrasonography can be used to detect minimal pixels.

Keywords: Mare; corpus luteum; color Doppler; power Doppler
REFERENCES:
  1. Nagy P, Guillaume D, Daels P. Seasonality in mares. Anim Reprod Sci. 2000;60-61:245-62. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  2. Schams D, Berisha B. Regulation of corpus luteum function in cattle--an overview. Reprod Domest Anim. 2004;39(4):241-51. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  3. Ishak GM, Bashir ST, Gastal MO, Gastal EL. Pre-ovulatory follicle affects corpus luteum diameter, blood flow, and progesterone production in mares. Anim Reprod Sci. 2017;187:1-12. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  4. Ginther OJ. Ultrasonic Imaging and Animal Reproduction. 1st ed. Cross Plains (WI): Equi Services Publishing; 1995.
  5. Erdoğan G. Veteriner jinekolojide doppler ultrasonografi kullanım alanları [Using of doppler ultrasonography in veterinary gynecology]. Turkiye Klinikleri J Vet Sci Obstet Gynecol-Special Topics. 2018;4(1):43-9. [Link] 
  6. Uçmak ZG, Kurban İ, Uçmak M. The vascularity of preovulatory follicle: The colour-Doppler assessment and its predictive value in the early pregnancy outcome in Arabian Mares. Vet Hek Dern Derg. 2020;91(2):104-9. [Link] 
  7. Günay Uçmak Z, Kurban I, Uçmak M. Evaluation of vascularization in the walls of preovulatory follicles in mares with endometritis. Theriogenology. 2020;157:79-84. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  8. Miyamoto A, Shirasuna K, Wijayagunawardane MP, Watanabe S, Hayashi M, Yamamoto D, et al. Blood flow: a key regulatory component of corpus luteum function in the cow. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2005;29(2):329-39. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  9. Bollwei H, Weber F, Kolberg B, Stolla R. Uterine and ovarian blood flow during the estrous cycle in mares. Theriogenology. 2002;57(8):2129-38. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  10. Ginther OJ. Reproductive Biology of the Mare: Basic and Applied Aspects. 2nd ed. Cross Plains, WI, USA: Equiservices Publishing; 1992. p.233-390.
  11. Ginther OJ, Gastal EL, Gastal MO, Utt MD, Beg MA. Luteal blood flow and progesterone production in mares. Anim Reprod Sci. 2007;99(1-2):213-20. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  12. Azevedo M de V, Souza NM, Sales FABM, Ferreira-Silva JC, Chaves MS, Vieira JIT, et al. Evaluation of corpus luteum vascularization in recipient mares by using color doppler ultrasound. Acta Sci Vet. 2021;49:1792. [Crossref] 
  13. El-Shahat KH, Abo El-Maaty A, Helmy M, El Baghdady Y. Power and colour Doppler ultrasonography for evaluation of the ovarian and uterine haemodynamics of infertile mares. Bulg. J. Vet. Med. 2020;23(3):338-49. [Link] 
  14. Henneke DR, Potter GD, Kreider JL, Yeates BF. Relationship between condition score, physical measurements and body fat percentage in mares. Equine Vet J. 1983;15(4):371-2. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  15. Taveiros AW, Melo PRM, Freitas Neto LM, Aguiar Filho CR, Silva ACJ, Lima PF, et al. Produção de embriões de éguas Mangalarga Marchador utilizadas nas Regiões Nordeste e Sudeste do Brasil. Med Veterinária (UFRPE). 2008;2(3):19-24. [Link] 
  16. Sales FABM, Azevedo MV, Souza NM, Ferreira-Silva JC, Chaves MS, Junior VR, et al. Correlations of corpus luteum blood flow with fertility and progesterone in embryo recipient mares. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2021;53(2):280. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  17. Ginther OJ, Utt MD. Doppler ultrasound in equine reproduction: principles, techniques, and potential. JEVS. 2004;24(12):516-26. [Crossref] 
  18. Ginther OJ, Rodrigues BL, Ferreira JC, Araujo RR, Beg MA. Characterisation of pulses of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2alpha (PGFM) and relationships between PGFM pulses and luteal blood flow before, during, and after luteolysis in mares. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2008;20(6):684-93. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  19. Lüttgenau J, Ulbrich SE, Beindorff N, Honnens A, Herzog K, Bollwein H. Plasma progesterone concentrations in the mid-luteal phase are dependent on luteal size, but independent of luteal blood flow and gene expression in lactating dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci. 2011;125(1-4):20-9. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  20. Herzog K, Brockhan-Lüdemann M, Kaske M, Beindorff N, Paul V, Niemann H, et al. Luteal blood flow is a more appropriate indicator for luteal function during the bovine estrous cycle than luteal size. Theriogenology. 2010;73(5):691-7. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  21. Requena F, Campos MJAPM, Martínez Marín AL, Camacho R, Giráldez-Pérez RM, Agüera EI. Assessment of age effects on ovarian hemodynamics using doppler ultrasound and progesterone concentrations in cycling Spanish purebred mares. Animals (Basel). 2021;11(8):2339. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  22. Ferreira JC, Ignácio FS, Meira C. Doppler ultrasonography principles and methods of evaluation of the reproductive tract in mares. Acta Sci Vet. 2011;39 (Suppl 1):105-11. [Link] 
  23. Bollwein H, Maierl J, Mayer R, Stolla R. Transrectal color Doppler sonography of the A. uterina in cyclic mares. Theriogenology. 1998;49(8):1483-8. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  24. Lencioni R, Pinto F, Armillotta N, Bartolozzi C. Assessment of tumor vascularity in hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of power Doppler US and color Doppler US. Radiology. 1996;201(2):353-8. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  25. Guerriero S, Alcazar JL, Ajossa S, Lai MP, Errasti T, Mallarini G, et al. Comparison of conventional color Doppler imaging and power doppler imaging for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer: results of a European study. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;83(2):299-304. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  26. Brogan PT, Henning H, Stout TA, de Ruijter-Villani M. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer. Anim Reprod Sci. 2016;166:22-7. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  27. Ferreira JC, Filho LFN, Boakari YL, Canesin HS, Thompson DL Jr, Lima FS, et al. Hemodynamics of the corpus luteum in mares during experimentally impaired luteogenesis and partial luteolysis. Theriogenology. 2018;107:78-84. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 

.: Up To Date



Login



Contact


Ortadoğu Reklam Tanıtım Yayıncılık Turizm Eğitim İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş.

.: Address

Turkocagi Caddesi No:30 06520 Balgat / ANKARA
Phone: +90 312 286 56 56
Fax: +90 312 220 04 70
E-mail: info@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Manuscript Editing Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 2
E-mail: yaziisleri@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: English Language Redaction

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 145
E-mail: tkyayindestek@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Marketing Sales-Project Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 142
E-mail: reklam@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Subscription and Public Relations Department

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 118
E-mail: abone@turkiyeklinikleri.com

.: Customer Services

Phone: +90 312 286 56 56/ 118
E-mail: satisdestek@turkiyeklinikleri.com

1. TERMS OF USE

1.1. To use the web pages with http://www.turkiyeklinikleri.com domain name or the websites reached through the sub domain names attached to the domain name (They will be collectively referred as "SITE"), please read the conditions below. If you do not accept these terms, please cease to use the "SITE." "SITE" owner reserves the right to change the information on the website, forms, contents, the "SITE," "SITE" terms of use anytime they want.

1.2. The owner of the "SITE" is Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. (From now on it is going to be referred as "Turkiye Klinikleri", shortly) and it resides at Turkocagi cad. No:30, 06520 Balgat Ankara. The services in the "SITE" are provided by "Turkiye Klinikleri."

1.3. Anyone accessing the "SITE" with or without a fee whether they are a natural person or a legal identity is considered to agree these terms of use. In this contract hereby, "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the stated terms anytime. These changes will be published in the "SITE" periodically and they will be valid when they are published. Any natural person or legal identity benefiting from and reaching to the "SITE" are considered to be agreed to any change on hereby contract terms done by "Turkiye Klinikleri."

1.4. The "Terms of Use" hereby is published in the website with the last change on March 30th 2014 and the "SITE" is activated by enabling the access to everyone. The "Terms of Use" hereby is also a part of the any "USER Contract" was and/or will be done with the users using "Turkiye Klinikleri" services with or without a fee an inseparable.

2. DEFINITIONS

2.1. "SITE": A website offering different kind of services and context with a certain frame determined by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and it is accessible on-line on http://www.turkiyeklinikleri.com domain name and/or subdomains connected to the domain name.

2.2. USER: A natural person or a legal identity accessing to the "SITE" through online settings.

2.3. LINK: A link enabling to access to another website through the "SITE", the files, the context or through another website to the "SITE", the files and the context.

2.4. CONTEXT: Any visual, literary and auditory images published in the "Turkiye Klinikleri", "SITE" and/or any website or any accessible information, file, picture, number/figures, price, etc.

2.5. "USER CONTRACT": An electronically signed contract between a natural or a legal identity benefiting from special services "Turkiye Klinikleri" will provide and "Turkiye Klinikleri".

3. SCOPE OF THE SERVICES

3.1. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is completely free to determine the scope and quality of the services via the "SITE".

3.2. To benefit the services of "Turkiye Klinikleri" "SITE", the "USER" must deliver the features that will be specified by "Turkiye Klinikleri". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change this necessity any time single-sided.

3.3. Not for a limited number, the services "Turkiye Klinikleri" will provide through the "SITE" for a certain price or for free are;

- Providing scientific articles, books and informative publications for health industry.

- Providing structural, statistical and editorial support to article preparation stage for scientific journals.

4. GENERAL PROVISIONS

4.1. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is completely free to determine which of the services and contents provided in the "SITE" will be charged.

4.2. People benefiting from the services provided by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and using the website can use the "SITE" only according to the law and only for personal reasons. Users have the criminal and civil liability for every process and action they take in the "SITE". Every USER agrees, declares and undertakes that they will not proceed by any function or action infringement of rights of "Turkiye Klinikleri"s and/or other third parties', they are the exclusive right holder on usage, processing, storage, made public and revealing any written, visual or auditory information reported to Turkiye Klinikleri" and/or "SITE" to the third parties. "USER" agrees and undertakes that s/he will not duplicate, copy, distribute, process, the pictures, text, visual and auditory images, video clips, files, databases, catalogs and lists within the "SITE", s/he will not be using these actions or with other ways to compete with "Turkiye Klinikleri", directly or indirectly.

4.3. The services provided and the context published within the "SITE" by third parties is not under the responsibility of "Turkiye Klinikleri", institutions collaborated with "Turkiye Klinikleri", "Turkiye Klinikleri" employee and directors, "Turkiye Klinikleri" authorized salespeople. Commitment to accuracy and legality of the published information, context, visual and auditory images provided by any third party are under the full responsibility of the third party. "Turkiye Klinikleri" does not promise and guarantee the safety, accuracy and legality of the services and context provided by a third party.

4.4. "USER"s cannot act against "Turkiye Klinikleri", other "USER"s and third parties by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" has no direct and/or indirect responsibility for any damage a third party suffered or will suffer regarding "USER"s actions on the "SITE" against the rules of the hereby "Terms of Use" and the law.

4.5. "USER"s accept and undertake that the information and context they provided to the "SITE" are accurate and legal. "Turkiye Klinikleri" is not liable and responsible for promising and guaranteeing the verification of the information and context transmitted to "Turkiye Klinikleri" by the "USER"s, or uploaded, changed and provided through the "SITE" by them and whether these information are safe, accurate and legal.

4.6. "USER"s agree and undertake that they will not perform any action leading to unfair competition, weakening the personal and commercial credit of "Turkiye Klinikleri" and a third party,  encroaching and attacking on personal rights within the "SITE" in accordance with the Turkish Commercial Code Law.

4.7. "Turkiye Klinikleri" reserves the right to change the services and the context within the "SITE"  anytime. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may use this right without any notification and timelessly. "USER"s have to make the changes and/or corrections "Turkiye Klinikleri" required immediately. Any changes and/or corrections that are required by "Turkiye Klinikleri", may be made by "Turkiye Klinikleri" when needed. Any harm, criminal and civil liability resulted or will result from changes and/or corrections required by "Turkiye Klinikleri" and were not made on time by the "USER"s belongs completely to the users.

4.8. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may give links through the "SITE" to other websites and/or "CONTEXT"s and/or folders that are outside of their control and owned and run by third parties. These links are provided for ease of reference only and do not hold qualification for support the respective web SITE or the admin or declaration or guarantee for the information inside. "Turkiye Klinikleri" does not hold any responsibility over the web-sites connected through the links on the "SITE", folders and context, the services or products on the websites provided through these links or their context.

4.9. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may use the information provided to them by the "USERS" through the "SITE" in line with the terms of the "PRIVACY POLICY" and "USER CONTRACT". It may process the information or classify and save them on a database. "Turkiye Klinikleri" may also use the USER's or visitor's identity, address, e-mail address, phone number, IP number, which sections of the "SITE" they visited, domain type, browser type, date and time information to provide statistical evaluation and customized services.

5. PROPRIETARY RIGHTS

5.1. The information accessed through this "SITE" or provided by the users legally and all the elements (including but not limited to design, text, image, html code and other codes) of the "SITE" (all of them will be called as studies tied to "Turkiye Klinikleri"s copyrights) belongs to "Turkiye Klinikleri". Users do not have the right to resell, process, share, distribute, display or give someone permission to access or to use the "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information and the products under copyright protection by "Turkiye Klinikleri". Within hereby "Terms of Use" unless explicitly permitted by "Turkiye Klinikleri" nobody can reproduce, process, distribute or produce or prepare any study from those under "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyright protection.

5.2. Within hereby "Terms of Use", "Turkiye Klinikleri" reserves the rights for "Turkiye Klinikleri" services, "Turkiye Klinikleri" information, the products associated with "Turkiye Klinikleri" copyrights, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trademarks, "Turkiye Klinikleri" trade looks or its all rights for other entity and information it has through this website unless it is explicitly authorized by "Turkiye Klinikleri".

6. CHANGES IN THE TERMS OF USE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" in its sole discretion may change the hereby "Terms of Use" anytime announcing within the "SITE". The changed terms of the hereby "Terms of Use" will become valid when they are announced. Hereby "Terms of Use" cannot be changed by unilateral declarations of users.

7. FORCE MAJEURE

"Turkiye Klinikleri" is not responsible for executing late or never of this hereby "Terms of Use", privacy policy and "USER Contract" in any situation legally taken into account as force majeure. Being late or failure of performance or non-defaulting of this and similar cases like this will not be the case from the viewpoint of "Turkiye Klinikleri", and "Turkiye Klinikleri" will not have any damage liability for these situations. "Force majeure" term will be regarded as outside of the concerned party's reasonable control and any situation that "Turkiye Klinikleri" cannot prevent even though it shows due diligence. Also, force majeure situations include but not limited to natural disasters, rebellion, war, strike, communication problems, infrastructure and internet failure, power cut and bad weather conditions.

8. LAW AND AUTHORISATION TO FOLLOW

Turkish Law will be applied in practicing, interpreting the hereby "Terms of Use" and managing the emerging legal relationships within this "Terms of Use" in case of finding element of foreignness, except for the rules of Turkish conflict of laws. Ankara Courts and Enforcement Offices are entitled in any controversy happened or may happen due to hereby contract.

9. CLOSING AND AGREEMENT

Hereby "Terms of Use" come into force when announced in the "SITE" by "Turkiye Klinikleri". The users are regarded to agree to hereby contract terms by using the "SITE". "Turkiye Klinikleri" may change the contract terms and the changes will be come into force by specifying the version number and the date of change on time it is published in the "SITE".

 

30.03.2014

Privacy Policy

We recommend you to read the terms of use below before you visit our website. In case you agree these terms, following our rules will be to your favor. Please read our Terms of Use thoroughly.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com website belongs to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. and is designed in order to inform physicians in the field of health

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot reach to user’s identity, address, service providers or other information. The users may send this information to the website through forms if they would like to. However, www.turkiyeklinikleri.com may collect your hardware and software information. The information consists of your IP address, browser type, operating system, domain name, access time, and related websites. www.turkiyeklinikleri.com cannot sell the provided user information (your name, e-mail address, home and work address, phone number) to the third parties, publish it publicly, or keep it in the website. Gathered information has a directing feature to be a source for the website’s visitor profile, reporting and promotion of the services.

www.turkiyeklinikleri.com uses the taken information:

-To enhance, improve and maintain the quality of the website

-To generate visitor’s profile and statistical data

-To determine the tendency of the visitors on using our website

-To send print publications/correspondences

-To send press releases or notifications through e-mail

-To generate a list for an event or competition

By using www.turkiyeklinikleri.com you are considered to agree that;

-Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. cannot be hold responsible for any user’s illegal and immoral behavior,

-Terms of use may change from time to time,

-It is not responsible for other websites’ contents it cannot control or the harms they may cause although it uses the connection they provided.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. may block the website to users in the following events:

-Information with wrong, incomplete, deceiving or immoral expressions is recorded to the website,

-Proclamation, advertisement, announcement, libelous expressions are used against natural person or legal identity,

-During various attacks to the website,

-Disruption of the website because of a virus.

Written, visual and audible materials of the website, including the code and the software are under protection by legal legislation.

Without the written consent of Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. the information on the website cannot be downloaded, changed, reproduced, copied, republished, posted or distributed.

All rights of the software and the design of the website belong to Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc.

Ortadoğu Advertisement Presentation Publishing Tourism Education Architecture Industry and Trade Inc. will be pleased to hear your comments about our terms of use. Please share the subjects you think may enrich our website or if there is any problem regarding our website.

info@turkiyeklinikleri.com