Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Ethics-Law and History

.: RESEARCH
Aşı Reddi Sebepleri ve Aşı Retlerinin Normatif Etik Açıdan Değerlendirilmesi: Gaziosmanpaşa Mustafa Furuncu Aile Sağlığı Merkezi Örneğinde Niteliksel Bir Araştırma
Reasons for Vaccine Rejections and Ethical Dimension of Vaccine Rejections: A Qualitative Research in the Case of Gaziosmanpaşa Mustafa Furuncu Family Health Center
Elif GÜLTEKİNa , Necmettin ÇAĞLARb
aİstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa Tıp Fakültesi, Tıp Tarihi ve Etik ABD, İstanbul, Türkiye
bMustafa Furuncu Aile Sağlığı Merkezi, İstanbul, Türkiye
Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Ethics. 2023;31(3):171-83
doi: 10.5336/mdethic.2023-95933
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
Son yıllarda ebeveynler arasında çocuklarına aşı yaptırmayanların oranı dünya genelinde artış göstermektedir. Buna bağlı olarak çocukluk çağı bulaşıcı hastalıkları da yükselişe geçmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ülkemizdeki aşı reddi sebeplerini İstanbul Gaziosmanpaşa Mustafa Furuncu Aile Sağlığı Merkezi örneğinde incelemek ve aşı retlerini etik açıdan değerlendirmektedir. Çalışmamız, Sağlık Bilimleri Üniversitesi Hamidiye Bilimsel Araştırmalar Etik Kurulu ve İl Sağlık Müdürlüğü izni ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Nitel araştırma yöntemi olan fenomenoloji yöntemi ile gerçekleştirilen çalışmamızın verilerine göre aileler, aşı ile ilgili olumsuz duyum ve tecrübeleri, aşı içeriği ile ilgili kaygıları, aşıların yararsız, gereksiz ya da zararlı olduğu şeklindeki düşünceleri, aşılara güvenmemeleri, doğal bağışıklamanın yeterli ve daha etkili olduğu şeklindeki görüşleri nedeniyle aşı tereddüt ve retleri yaşadıklarını ifade etmişlerdir. Ülkemizde çocukluk çağı aşıları, ailelerin özerkliği gözetilerek tamamen ailelerin kararına bırakılmış durumdadır. Ancak bu durum, devletin toplum sağlığını koruma ödevi ve çocukların üstün yararının gözetilmesi ilkesi ile çatışmaktadır. İnsan haklarının önemsendiği toplumlarda kolluk kuvveti marifetiyle aşılama yapılması söz konusu olmamakla beraber, aşıları özgür iradeleri ile reddeden bireylere bazı sorumluluklar yüklenmesi makul bulunmaktadır. Kişilerin özgür iradeleri ile aşı eylemini reddedebilmeleri için ise aydınlatılma süreçlerinin iyi yönetilmesi önem taşımaktadır. Sonuç olarak, ailelerin aşı tereddüt ve retlerinin temelinde aşı ile ilgili yanlış inanışlar olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Aşı uygulamaları kapsamında ailelerin ayrıntılı olarak bilgilendirilmeleri, sordukları sorulara ayrıntılı bir şekilde cevap verilmesi aşılama oranlarını artıracaktır. Bu nedenle sağlık çalışanlarının aşılama konusunda iyi eğitim almaları gereklidir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Bulaşıcı ve salgın hastalıklar; aşı; halk sağlığı; etik
ABSTRACT
In recent years, the rate of parents who do not vaccinate their children has been on the rise worldwide. Thus, childhood infectious diseases have also been on the rise. The aim of this study to examine vacine hesitancies in the case of İstanbul Gaziosmanpaşa Mustafa Furuncu Family Health Center and to evaluate vaccine hesitancy from an ethical point of view. This study was conducted with the permission of University of Health Sciences Hamidiye Scientific Research Ethics Committee and Provincial Health Directorate. According to this study designed as a phenomenology, which is a qualitative research method; families stated that they experienced vaccine hesitations and rejections due to their negative feelings and experiences about the vaccine, their concerns about the vaccine content, their thoughts that vaccines are useless, unnecessary or harmful, their distrust of vaccines, and their views that natural immunization is sufficient and more effective. In our country, childhood vaccinations are completely left to the family's decision, taking into account the autonomy of the families. However, this situation conflicts with the duty of the state to protect public health and the principle of observing the best interests of children. Although it is not possible to vaccinate by law enforcement in societies where human rights are important, it is reasonable to impose certain responsibilities on individuals who refuse vaccinations of their own free will. In order for people to reject the vaccination action with their free will, it is important to manage the enlightenment processes well. In conclusion, it is understood that the basis of vaccination hesitations and refusals by families is false beliefs about vaccination. If the questions of the parents in the context of vaccination would be answered, the vaccination-rate can be increased. Thus, the health-care members should be well educated in the subject of vaccination.

Keywords: Infectious and epidemic diseases; vaccine; public health; ethics
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