Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Sports Sciences

.: ORIGINAL RESEARCH
The Effects of Local Hot and Cold Applications on Knee Joint Position Sense in Non-Elite Athletes: Experimental Study
Elit Olmayan Sporcularda Lokal Sıcak ve Soğuk Uygulamaların Diz Eklemi Pozisyon Duyusuna Etkisi: Deneysel Çalışma
Muhammet ÖZERa, Muammer ALTUNb, Haydar KAYNAKb, Nuri KARABULUTa, Devrim AKSEKİc
aDepartment of Physical Education and Sports Teaching, Uşak University Faculty of Sports Sciences, Uşak, Türkiye
bDepartment of Coaching Education, Manisa Celal Bayar University Faculty of Sports Sciences, Manisa, Türkiye
cDepartment of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Balıkesir University Faculty of Medicine, Balıkesir, Türkiye
Turkiye Klinikleri J Sports Sci. 2022;14(2):135-41
doi: 10.5336/sportsci.2021-86526
Article Language: EN
Full Text
ABSTRACT
Objective: Many athletes who are slightly injured and have pain during the game return to play immediately after a short cold application. However, athletes who have recently recovered from injury and still have hot applications also enter the play in a controlled manner when necessary. This study aimed to explore the specific effects of hot and cold applications on active joint position sense (JPS). Material and Methods: Twenty-seven (14 males and 13 females) athletes without any injury or complaint related to the knee participated in this study. JPS measurements were repeated for both knees at target angles of 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°, before and immediately after the hot application. One week later, the same tests were repeated with cold application. Local cooling and heating were applied for 15 min, by using gel-packs at 0°C and 44°C. Results: JPS was not affected by extremity dominance. The main effect of gender was significant only in 60°, and females made lower errors. Although no differences were observed before the hot and cold application, the absolute errors in all angles were higher for the cold than for the no-cold condition and lower for hot than the no-hot condition. Significant difference levels were at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° after the cold application, and at 45° and 60° after the hot application. Absolute errors increased as the target angle increased in all conditions. Conclusion: Results showed that hot application improves the proprioceptive quality of the knee joint in athletes, but cold application deteriorates.

Keywords: Joint position sense; hot application; cold application; knee proprioception
ÖZET
Amaç: Oyun sırasında hafif yaralanan ve ağrıları olan birçok sporcu kısa bir soğuk uygulamadan hemen sonra oyuna döner. Öte yandan sakatlığı yeni atlatan ve hâlen sıcak uygulamaları olan sporcular da gerektiğinde kontrollü bir şekilde oyuna dönerler. Bu çalışma, sıcak ve soğuk uygulamaların aktif eklem pozisyon hissi 'joint position sense (JPS)' üzerindeki spesifik etkilerini araştırmayı amaçladı. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Bu çalışmaya diz ile ilgili herhangi bir yaralanma veya şikâyeti olmayan 27 (14 erkek ve 13 kadın) sporcu katıldı. Sıcak uygulamadan önce ve hemen sonra 15°, 30°, 45° ve 60° hedef açılarında her iki diz için JPS ölçümleri tekrarlandı. Bir hafta sonra aynı testler soğuk uygulama ile tekrarlandı. 0°C ve 44°C'de jel paketleri kullanılarak 15 dk boyunca lokal soğutma ve ısıtma uygulandı. Bulgular: JPS ekstremite baskınlığından etkilenmedi. Cinsiyetin ana etkisi sadece 60°de anlamlıydı ve kadınlar daha az hata yaptı. Sıcak ve soğuk uygulama öncesinde herhangi bir farklılık görülmemesine rağmen tüm açılardaki mutlak hatalar, soğukta soğuk olmayan duruma göre daha yüksek, sıcak için ise sıcak olmayan duruma göre daha düşüktü. Soğuk uygulamadan sonra 15°, 30°, 45° ve 60°de, sıcak uygulamadan sonra 45° ve 60°de önemli fark seviyeleri olmuştur. Her koşulda hedef açısı arttıkça mutlak hatalar arttı. Sonuç: Sonuçlar, sporcularda sıcak uygulamanın diz ekleminin propriyoseptif kalitesini iyileştirdiğini ancak soğuk uygulamanın bozduğunu gösterdi.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Eklem pozisyon duyusu; sıcak uygulama; soğuk uygulama; diz propriyosepsiyonu
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