Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Ethics-Law and History

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Şiddete Ad Koy(-ama-)mak: Adlandırma Bağlamında Obstetrik Şiddet: Geleneksel Derleme
(Failure) to Name Violence: Obstetric Violence in Naming Context: Traditional Review
Hülya ULAŞLI KABANa , Fatma AYb
aŞişli Hamidiye Etfal Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi, İstanbul, Türkiye
bİstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, Ebelik Bölümü, İstanbul, Türkiye
Turkiye Klinikleri J Med Ethics. 2023;31(3):239-45
doi: 10.5336/mdethic.2022-94129
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
Obstetrik şiddet kadınların, bedenleri ve reprodüktif süreçleriyle ilgili otonomilerinin insanlık dışı olarak tabir edilen muamelelerle ellerinden alınması, tıbbileştirmenin kötüye kullanımı ve doğal süreçlerin patolojik hâle gelmesidir. Reprodüktif süreçlerin herhangi bir aşamasında karşılaşılabilen, kadınların kaliteli sağlık hizmeti almasını engelleyen hem anne hem de bebek sağlığı açısından olumsuz sonuçlar doğurabilen bir fenomendir. Şiddet algısının toplumsal, kültürel ve bireysel bağlamlardan etkilenmesi kavramın tanımını zorlaştırmaktadır. Kavramın tanımlanması adına yapılan çalışmalarda ''kötü muamele''ye odaklanılsa da kapsamlı bir ortak tanım ve terimlendirme mevcut değildir. Mevcut araştırmalarda kullanılan pek çok kötü muamele tanımı; ''saygısızlık ve istismar'', ''doğum sırasında kötü muamele'' ve ''obstetrik şiddet'' olarak ifade edilen üç kavramın birleşimidir. Adlandırma bağlamında literatürde birçok fikir ayrılığı mevcuttur. Adlandırmaya yönelik kavramsal bir temel, yaygınlığının daha iyi bilinmesine, daha fazla çalışma yapılarak doğabilecek olumsuz sonuçlar konusunda farkındalık yaratılmasına ve önlem alınmasına olanak sağlayacaktır. Ayrıca kavramın çok boyutluluğunu vurgulayan bir adlandırma fenomenin önlenmesi konusunda farklı disiplinlerin de katkılarıyla kanıt temelli ulusal sağlık politikalarının oluşturulması için zemin hazırlanmasına katkıda bulunacaktır. Ülkemizde yeni yeni tartışılmaya başlanan bu fenomen dünyada çok çeşitli bağlamlarda uzun yıllardır çalışılmaktadır. Bu derlemede amaç, literatür doğrultusunda adlandırma bağlamındaki sorunları, adlandırma çalışmalarını, şiddet kelimesi yerine kullanılan terimler ve neden kullanıldığı ile bu konudaki fikir ayrılıklarını ve bunların nedenlerini ortaya koymaktır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Şiddet; obstetrik şiddet; adlandırma; doğum
ABSTRACT
Obstetric violence is the deprivation of women's autonomy regarding their bodies and reproductive processes through inhumane treatments, abuse of medicalization, and pathology of natural processes. It is a phenomenon that can be encountered at any stage of reproductive processes which can have negative consequences for both maternal and infant health, preventing women from receiving quality health care. The fact that the perception of violence is affected by social, cultural and individual contexts makes the definition of the concept difficult. Although the studies on the definition of the concept focus on ''mistreatment'', there is no comprehensive common definition and terminology on the subject. Many definitions of mistreatment used in existing research are a combination of three concepts: "disrespect and abuse", "mistreatment during labour" and "obstetric violence". There are many differences of opinion in the literature in the context of naming. A conceptual basis for naming will allow its prevalence to be better known, awareness about the negative consequences that may arise by conducting more studies, and precautions to be taken. In addition, a naming that emphasizes the multidimensionality of the concept will contribute to preparing the ground for the creation of evidence-based national health policies with the contributions of different disciplines on the prevention of the phenomenon. This phenomenon, which has just begun to be discussed in our country, has been studied for many years in various contexts in the world. The aim of this review, in line with the literature, is to reveal the problems in the context of naming, naming studies, the terms used instead of the word violence and why they are used, the disagreements on this issue and their reasons.

Keywords: Violence; obstetric violence; naming; childbirth
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