Turkiye Klinikleri Cardiovascular Sciences

.: ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Kalp-Damar Cerrahi Hastalarının Anksiyete Düzeyleri: Baş Etme Yöntemleri, Öz-Etkililik Düzeyi ve Sosyal Destek Mekanizmalarının İncelenmesi: Tanımlayıcı ve İlişki Arayıcı Araştırma
Anxiety Levels of Cardiovascular Surgery Patients: Investigation of Coping Methods, Self-Efficacy Level and Social Support Mechanisms: Descriptive and Relational Research
Özlem KÖSEOĞLU ÖRNEKa, Hatice Nurhan GÜNAYDINb, Nurcan KOLAÇc, Burak AÇIKGÖZd, Ali Aycan KAVALAe, Saygın TÜRKYILMAZe
aInstitute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Almanya
bTozkoparan Uhud Aile Sağlığı Merkezi, İstanbul, Türkiye
cMarmara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, Hemşirelik Bölümü, İstanbul, Türkiye
dLyckeby Health Central. Källevägen Karlskrona, İsviçre
eBakırköy Dr. Sadi Konuk Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi, Kalp ve Damar Cerrahisi Kliniği, İstanbul, Türkiye
Turkiye Klinikleri J Cardiovasc Sci. 2022;34(2):35-45
doi: 10.5336/cardiosci.2022-88726
Article Language: TR
Full Text
ÖZET
Amaç: Kalp hastalıkları, insan hayatını etkileyen önemli bir hastalık grubudur. Kronik hastalıklara bağlı dünyadaki ölümlerin büyük çoğunluğu kalp-damar hastalıklarından kaynaklanmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, kardiyovasküler hastalık nedeniyle cerrahi servise yatırılan hastaların kaygı, öz yeterlik, algılanan sosyal destek düzeyi ve baş etme profillerini incelemektir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Araştırmanın verileri, İstanbul Avrupa Yakası'nda yer alan bir eğitim ve araştırma hastanesinin kalp-damar cerrahisi servisinde tedavi gören hastalardan oluşmaktadır. Veri toplama aracı olarak Beck Anksiyete Ölçeği, Öz-Etkililik/Yeterlilik Ölçeği, Çok Boyutlu Algılanan Sosyal Destek Ölçeği, Kısa Baş Etme Yöntemleri Ölçeği ve kısa tanımlayıcı özellikler formundan oluşmaktadır. Veriler Kasım 2017 ile Mayıs 2018 arasında toplanmıştır. Bulgular: Araştırma yaş ortalaması 49,03±12,83 (minimum: 21-maksimum: 82 yıl) olan 170 hastadan oluşmaktadır. Hastaların %12'sinde 'şiddetli' anksiyete saptandı. Hastaların algıladıkları sosyal destek düzeylerinin ekonomik durumlarına, taburculuk sonrası bakım aldıkları yere ve destek aldıkları kişilerin yakınlığına göre farklılaştığı görüldü (p<0,05). Sağlık profesyonellerinin kurdukları iletişimin kalitesine göre kaygı ve algılanan sosyal destek düzeylerinin farklılaştığı bulundu (p<0,05). Pearson'ın analizine göre hastaların anksiyete düzeyleri ile algıladıkları sosyal düzey arasında negatif yönlü bir ilişki olduğu bulundu (r=-0,191, p<0,05). Hastaların öz yeterlik düzeyleri ile algılanan sosyal destek arasında pozitif ilişki bulundu (p=0,000). Sonuç: Kalp hastalarının psikolojik sağlık sorunlarından biri olan anksiyetenin kontrolü ve hastalık süreciyle etkin bir şekilde baş etmede; algılanan sosyal desteğin, öz yeterlik düzeylerinin, baş etme yöntemlerinin, taburculuk sonrası evde bakım sürecinde birincil yakın desteğin, hekim, hemşire gibi sağlık profesyonelleri ile açık ve kaliteli iletişimin etkili olduğu görülmektedir. Hastaların evde bakım hizmetlerini kapsayacak şekilde psikososyal destek mekanizmalarının taburculuk öncesinde değerlendirilerek, profesyonel yardım almasının sağlanması önemli görünmektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Kalp cerrahi süreci; sosyal destek; anksiyete; öz yeterlik; taburculuk
ABSTRACT
Objective: Heart diseases are an important group of diseases that affect human life. It is the first cause of death in the world. The aim of this study is to examine the anxiety, self-efficacy, perceived social support level and coping profiles of patients admitted to the surgical service for cardiovascular disease. Material and Methods: The data of the study consists of patients who were treated in the cardiovascular surgery service of a training and research hospital located on the European side of İstanbul. It consists of Beck Anxiety Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Brief Coping Profiles Scale and short descriptive characateristics form as data collection instruments. Data were collected between November 2017 and May 2018. Results: The study consisted of 170 patients with a mean age of 49.03±12.83 (minimum: 21-maximum: 82 years). 'Severe' anxiety was detected in 12% of the patients. It was observed that the perceived social support levels of the patients differed according to their economic status, the place where they received care after discharge, and the closeness of the people they received support from (p<0.05). It was found that the levels of anxiety and perceived social support differed according to the quality of communication established by health professionals (p<0.05). According to Pearson's analysis; a negative correlation was found between the anxiety levels of the patients and their perceived social level (r=-0.191, p<0.05). A positive correlation was found between patients' self-efficacy levels and perceived social support (p=0.000). Conclusion: In controlling anxiety, which is one of the psychological health problems of heart patients, and effectively coping with the disease process; it is seen that perceived social support, self-efficacy levels, coping methods, primary close support in the post-discharge home care process, open and quality communication with health professionals such as physicians and nurses are effective. It seems important to ensure that patients receive professional support before discharge by evaluating psychosocial support mechanisms, including home care services.

Keywords: Cardiac surgical procedures; social support; anxiety; self efficacy; discharge
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