Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Nursing Sciences

.: ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Examining Mental Symptoms According to Physical Health Problems in Pregnant Women: A Descriptive Study
Gebelerde Ruhsal Belirtilerin Fiziksel Sağlık Problemlerine Göre İncelenmesi: Tanımlayıcı Bir Çalışma
Aysun BABACAN GÜMÜŞa, Eda CANGÖLb, Seda SÖGÜTb
aDepartment of Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Çanakkale, TURKEY
bDepartment of Midwifery, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Health Sciences, Çanakkale, TURKEY
Turkiye Klinikleri J Nurs Sci. 2021;13(3):572-80
doi: 10.5336/nurses.2020-80794
Article Language: EN
ABSTRACT
Objective: Although pregnancy is a natural life crisis for every woman, physical and physiological changes specific to pregnancy, the presence of the baby in the womb, differences in family and social life can cause various psychosocial reactions during pregnancy. Although mental symptoms are quite common in pregnant women, pregnancy symptoms are generally focused on pregnancy follow-up, and the psychosocial aspect of pregnancy is ignored. The aim of this study is to examine mental symptoms in pregnant women according to physical health problems. Material and Methods: This study employed a descriptive design, and was conducted in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Poly clinics of the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Health, Practice and Research Hospital, and Çanakkale State State Hospital, between March and December 2017 and 713 pregnant women participated in the study. The data were collected by face to face interview method using the Questionnaire Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Interviews with pregnant women for data collection took an average of 30 minutes. Results: The symptoms of anxiety, depression, negative self, somatization, and hostility were significantly higher in pregnant women with fatigue, headache, sleep problems, shoulder-neck pain, breast problems, urinary incontinence, vomiting, muscle cramps, excess-weight gain, and movement restrictions. Constipation and hemorrhoid problems did not significantly affect mental symptoms. Conclusion: In this study, it was determined that physical health problems in pregnant women affect the severity of symptoms of anxiety, depression, somatization, negative self, and hostility in pregnant women. The interaction of mental symptoms experienced during pregnancy with physical health problems should be considered. It is thought that evaluating pregnant women with a holistic perspective and providing care services with this approach will positively affect the health of pregnant women.

Keywords: Pregnant women; mental health services; nurse; midwife
ÖZET
Amaç: Gebelik her kadın için doğal bir yaşam krizi olmakla birlikte, gebeliğe özgü fiziksel ve fizyolojik değişiklikler; anne karnındaki bebeğin varlığı, aile ve sosyal yaşamda meydana gelen farklılıklar, gebelik sürecinde çeşitli psikososyal tepkilere yol açabilmektedir. Gebelerde ruhsal belirtiler oldukça yaygın görülmesine karşın gebelik izlemlerinde genellikle gebelik belirtilerine odaklanılmakta, gebeliğin psikososyal yönü göz ardı edilmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, gebelerde ruhsal belirtilerin fiziksel sağlık problemlerine göre incelenmesidir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Tanımlayıcı tipteki bu araştırma, Mart ve Aralık 2017 tarihleri arasında Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Sağlık, Uygulama ve Araştırma Hastanesi ile Çanakkale Devlet Hastanesinin jinekoloji ve obstetri polikliniklerinde yapılmıştır. Çalışmaya dâhil edilme kriterlerini karşılayan gönüllü 713 gebe katılmıştır. Veriler yüz yüze görüşme yöntemi ile Anket Formu ve Kısa Semptom Envanteri kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Veri toplama amacıyla gebelerle yapılan görüşmeler ortalama 30 dk sürmüştür. Bulgular: Yorgunluk, baş ağrısı, uyku problemleri, omuz-boyun ağrısı, meme problemleri, idrar kaçırma, kusma, kas krampları, aşırı kilo alımı ve hareket kısıtlamaları olan gebelerde anksiyete, depresyon, olumsuz benlik, somatizasyon ve düşmanlık semptomları anlamlı olarak daha yüksekti. Kabızlık ve hemoroid sorunları, ruhsal belirtileri önemli ölçüde etkilemedi. Sonuç: Bu çalışmada, gebelerde fiziksel sağlık sorunlarının gebelerde anksiyete, depresyon, somatizasyon, olumsuz benlik ve düşmanlık belirtilerinin şiddetini etkilediği belirlenmiştir. Gebelik sürecinde deneyimlenen ruhsal belirtilerin fiziksel sağlık problemleri ile etkileşimleri göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır. Gebelerin holistik bir bakış açısıyla değerlendirilmesi ve bakım hizmetlerinin bu yaklaşımla sunulmasının gebelerin sağlığını olumlu yönde etkileyeceği düşünülmektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Gebe; ruh sağlığı hizmetleri; hemşire; ebe
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